The skin can react in various ways on interior and exterior stimuli. Elicitors of infectious skin diseases have different causes like ectoparasites (for example demodectic mange, Sarcoptes-mange), dermatophyte (for example dermatophytoses, Mallasezien dermatitis) and bacteria (for example pyoderma, folliculitis, puppies’ impetigo) or viruses (for example secondary pyoderma or mycosis, fibrosarcoma, papillomatosis). Moreover there are many allergic skin diseases like nettle rash (urticaria) or atopies by allergies of food, contact or also flea saliva.
On the other hand autoimmune and immune-mediated skin diseases (for example pemphigus complex, Lupus erythematosus) are more rarely. The skin can however also be affected in case of systemic diseases like hormone and metabolic disorder. In these cases we often see symmetric alopecia with hair loss and partial change of the skin. Hyperadrenalic corticism (Cushing’s syndrome), hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) or more seldom the hypoestrogenism (by ovarian cysts or tumors, Sertolizell tumors with male dogs) belong to the hormonal induced diseases.
Symptoms in case of skin diseases are itches, alopecia (hair loss), redness, pustules, crusts and many more. As the animals often traumatize themselves in case of itches, the skin image changes and worsens relatively fast. For that reason sometimes different examination methods have to be combined in order to make an exact diagnosis.
Our diagnostic possibilities include impression compounds as well as superficial and deep skin scrapes, blood examinations (Sarkoptes antibodies, allergy test, hormonal measurements) and cytologic and histopathologic examinations of skin biopsies (fine needle biobsy/FNA, skin stamping). Allergy tests can additionally be executed to the blood examination as intradermal test.